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Kate Barker
Bank of England

Kate Barker was appointed as an external member of the Monetary Policy Committee with effect from 1 June 2001. The MPC is responsible for setting interest rates to meet the Government's inflation target of 2.0 percent.

From 1994-2001 Kate was Chief Economic Adviser at the CBI. She was previously Chief European Economist at the Ford Motor Company (1985-1994), and before that a Research Officer at the National Institute of Economic and Social Research (1981-1985). Other previous appointments include membership of Chancellor Clarke's Panel of Independent Economic Advisers 1996-97; and she was a non-executive Director of the Yorkshire Building Society (1999-April 2001).

Kate took a BA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics at St Hilda's College, Oxford in 1979.


Richard Berner
Chief U.S. Economist
Morgan Stanley

Richard Berner is a Principal in Morgan Stanley's Equity Research Department, and has responsibility for U.S. economic and financial research activities.

A native of Boston, Massachusetts, Mr. Berner received a bachelor of arts degree in economics from Harvard College, and a doctorate in economics from the University of Pennsylvania. He conducted dissertation research under SSRC-Ford Foundation grants at both the University of Louvain, Belgium, and at the University of Bologna, Italy.

Prior to joining Morgan Stanley, Mr. Berner was Executive Vice President and Chief Economist at Mellon Bank Corporation, and a member of Mellon Bank's Senior Management Committee. Previously, he served as a Principal and Senior Economist for Morgan Stanley and a Director and Senior Economist for Salomon Brothers. He has also served as Economist for Morgan Guaranty Trust Company, Director of the Washington, DC office of Wharton Econometrics and Economist for the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. He has been an adjunct professor of economics at Carnegie-Mellon University and at George Washington University.

Mr. Berner is also a member of the Board of the National Association for Business Economics and a member of the Board of Advisors of Macroeconomic Advisers, LLC. He has been a member of the Economic Advisory Committee of the American Bankers Association, Chairman of the Economic Advisory Board of the Pennsylvania Bankers Association, a member of the Board of Directors and past President of the Economic Club of Pittsburgh, a member of the Advisory Board of the Center for Economic Development at Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz School, a member of the Board of Trustees of Sewickley Academy, and a member of the Finance Advisory Committee of the Quaker Valley School District. He has also served as a member of the Pennsylvania Legislative Joint Task Force on Exports.


Phillip J. Bond
Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology
U.S. Department of Commerce

Phillip J. Bond was sworn in as Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology on October 30, 2001. He was nominated by President George W. Bush on September 4, and confirmed by the United States Senate on October 23, 2001.

From January 2002 through January 2003, Bond served concurrently as Chief of Staff to Commerce Secretary Don Evans. In his dual role, Bond worked closely with the Secretary to increase market access for US goods and services and further advance America's technological leadership at home and around the world.

Under Secretary Bond serves as the principal advisor to Secretary Evans on science and technology policy to maximize technology's contribution to America's economic growth. In this context, Mr. Bond's primary responsibilities are to supervise policy development and direction among the Office of Technology Policy (OTP), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). He also serves on four committees of the President's National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), a Cabinet-level council established by the President to coordinate science, space, and technology policy within the Federal research and development enterprise.

One of Mr. Bond's top priorities has been to transform the Technology Administration into the pre-eminent portal between the federal government and the U.S. technology industry. In that regard, he directs TA efforts to advocate on behalf of U.S. technology in the federal policy-making process. Some of the high priority issues that he is involved in include support for American innovation and entrepreneurship; the converging fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and the cognitive sciences; strengthening U.S. technology cooperation with other countries, especially in areas such as standards development; education and training of a high tech U.S. workforce; and an array of issues of concern to the telecommunications and information technology industries.

Mr. Bond was recognized in Scientific American Tech Leaders of 2003 (December 2003) for promoting nanotechnology effectively within the executive branch.

His experience in the private sector includes serving as Director of Federal Public Policy for the Hewlett-Packard Company, a position he held immediately before joining Commerce, and previously serving as Senior Vice President for Government Affairs and Treasurer of the Information Technology Industry Council.

From 1993 to 1998, Phil Bond served as Chief of Staff to Congresswoman Jennifer Dunn (R-WA). He was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Legislative Affairs from 1992 to 1993 for then-Defense Secretary Dick Cheney. Earlier, he was Chief of Staff and Rules Committee Associate for Congressman Bob McEwen (R-OH) from 1990 to 1992. From 1987 to 1990, he served as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Legislative Affairs. He is a graduate of Linfield College in Oregon.

David J. Brailer
National Coordinator for Health Information Technology
U.S. Health & Human Services Department

Dr. Brailer was appointed the first National Health Information Technology Coordinator on May 6, 2004. Dr. Brailer's duties as National Coordinator are to execute the actions ordered by President George W. Bush in the Executive Order that he issued on April 27, 2004, which called for widespread deployment of health information technology within 10 years to help realize substantial improvements in safety and efficiency. Dr. Brailer is recognized as a leader in the strategy and financing of quality and efficiency in health care, with a particular emphasis on health information technology and health systems management.

Prior to his appointment, Dr. Brailer was a Senior Fellow at the Health Technology Center in San Francisco, CA, a non-profit research and education organization that provides strategic information and resources to health care organizations about the future impact of technology in health care delivery. At the Center, he advised a variety of regional and national data sharing projects.

Dr. Brailer also served for ten years as Chairman and CEO of CareScience, Inc., a leading provider of care management services and Internet-based solutions that help reduce medical errors and improve physician and hospital-based performance. While at CareScience, Dr. Brailer led the company in developing groundbreaking inventions with major research institutions, establishing the nation's first health care Application Service Provider (ASP) and creating a care management business process outsourcing partnership that allowed hospitals to outsource their care management functions on an at-risk basis. Dr. Brailer also designed and oversaw the development of one of the first community-based health information exchanges in Santa Barbara County, California.

Dr. Brailer holds doctoral degrees in both medicine and economics. While in medical school, he was a Charles A. Dana Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine and was the first recipient of the National Library of Medicine Martin Epstein Award for his work in expert systems. Dr. Brailer was among the first medical students to serve on the Board of Trustees of the American Medical Association. He completed his medical residency at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and became board certified in internal medicine along the clinical investigator pathway. Dr. Brailer was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania and, until recently, was active in patient care delivery with an emphasis on immune deficiency. He earned his M.D. degree at West Virginia University and his Ph.D. in managerial economics at The Wharton School.


Keith Brainard
Research Director
National Association of State Retirement Administrators

As research director for the National Association of State Retirement Administrators, Keith Brainard collects, prepares and distributes to NASRA members news, studies and reports pertinent to public retirement system administration and policy. NASRA members are the directors and administrators of 75 statewide public retirement systems who oversee public retirement systems with combined assets of $1.9 trillion and that provide pension and other benefits for three-fourths of all state and local government workers in the U.S..

Keith speaks frequently on public pension issues and is the author of the NASRA white paper, “Myths & Misperceptions of Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plans.” He coauthored in 2004 a Wharton School Pension Research Council working paper, “Profitable Prudence: The Case for Public Defined Benefit Plans,” which measured the economic effects of public pension funds. Keith maintains the Public Fund Survey , an online compendium of public pension data sponsored jointly by NASRA and the National Council on Teacher Retirement.

Mr. Brainard previously served as manager of budget & planning for the Arizona State Retirement System and he performed fiscal research and analysis for the Texas and Arizona legislatures. He has a master's degree from the University of Texas-Austin, LBJ School of Public Affairs.

Richard H. Clarida
Chief Economic Strategist, The Clinton Group
Professor of Economics, Columbia University

Richard H. Clarida is the C. Lowell Harriss Professor of Economics at Columbia University. From February 2002 until May 2003, Clarida served in the Administration of President George W. Bush as the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Economic Policy, a position that required nomination by President Bush and confirmation by the US Senate. In that position, he served as Chief Economist for the Treasury Department, reporting directly to the Treasury Secretary, and advising him on a wide range economic policy issues, including the US and global economic prospects, international capital flows, corporate governance, and the maturity structure of US debt. On May 12, 2003 Treasury Secretary John Snow presented Clarida with The Treasury Medal in recognition for his record of outstanding service to the Treasury Department. From 1997 until he entered the Bush Administration, Clarida was the chairman of the Department of Economics at Columbia University. Earlier in his career, Clarida taught at Yale University, and served in the Administration of President Ronald Reagan as Senior Staff Economist with the President's Council of Economic Advisers.

Clarida has published numerous articles in leading academic journals on monetary policy, exchange rates, interest rates, and international capital flows. He is frequently invited to present his views and research to the world's leading central banks, including the Federal Reserve, the ECB, and the Bank of England. He has also served as a consultant to several prominent financial firms, including the Global Foreign Exchange Group at Credit Suisse First Boston and Grossman Asset Management. Since July 2003, Clarida has advised the Clinton Group, a new York investment advisor, on economic strategy. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the National Bureau of Economic Research. Clarida is director of the NBER Project on G7 Current Account Imbalances.

Clarida graduated with highest honors from the University of Illinois in 1979 and received both his Masters degree and Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University in 1983. He is married with two children and lives in Southport CT.


Claude Carrière
Minister (Economics) and Deputy Head of Mission
Canadian Embassy

Claude Carrière is the Minister (Economic) and Deputy Head of Mission for the Canadian Embassy in Washington DC. Prior to this, he was the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, Trade, Economic and Environmental Policy Branch, where he was responsible for Regional Trade Policy, including the Chief Negotiator for the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and other bilateral negotiations. Following the decision of December'03 to create the Department of International Trade, he was responsible for the negotiations with the Department of Foreign Affairs to separate the two entities. From September 1999 to December 2003, he was Director General, General Trade Policy - DFAIT, where he was responsible for Market Acess for Goods, Trade Remedies, Technical Barriers to Trade and Regional Trade Policy, Coordinator for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Chief Negotiator for the FTAA and other Bilateral Trade Negotiations.

He received a Master Degree in Economics from Ottawa University in 1980


Carol Conway
Deputy Director
Southern Growth Policies Board

Carol Conway has more than 15 years of experience with Southern Growth Policies Board, serving in a variety of senior positions. She currently serves as deputy director and manages two of Southern Growth's advisory councils: the Global Strategies Council and the Council for a New Economy Workforce.

Prior to joining Southern Growth, Carol was a program director with the Corporation for Enterprise Development. During her tenure, she designed and launched the Appalachian Regional Commission's Export Trade Advisory Council and co-authored The International State: Crafting A Statewide Trade Development Systems , a book published by the Aspen Institute, among other projects.

Carol has more than two decades of federal and state government experience in international trade policy. She has served as an economist with the U.S. Department of Commerce's Office of Policy for the Import Administration of the International Trade Administration, and as financial consultant with the Division of Community Assistance, in the N.C. Department of Natural Resources and Community Development. She also holds the distinction of being selected the 2001 North American Trade Educator of the Year.

Carol serves on the board of directors of NASFA: Association of International Educators, the University of North Carolina Center for International Business and Economic Research, the World Trade Center of North Carolina, and World View. She is also a member of both the N.C. District Export Council and the Triangle World Affairs Council.

In addition to her duties at Southern Growth, Carol is active in her local school district promoting more effective school-to-work strategies and improving services for the disabled. Carol holds a masters of public affairs degree from Princeton University and a bachelors of science degree from Indiana University.



Michael Dicks
Chief Economist for Europe
Lehman Brothers, London



David A. Dodge
Bank of Canada

David A. Dodge was appointed Governor of the Bank of Canada on 1 February 2001, for a term of seven years. As Governor, he is Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Bank.

A native of Toronto, Mr. Dodge received a bachelor's degree (Honours) in Economics from Queen's University, and a PhD in Economics from Princeton (1972).

During his academic career he has served as Assistant Professor of Economics at Queen's University; Associate Professor of Canadian Studies and International Economics at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; Senior Fellow in the Faculty of Commerce at the University of British Columbia; and Visiting Professor in the Department of Economics at Simon Fraser University. He has also served as Director of the International Economics Program of the Institute for Research on Public Policy.

During a distinguished career in the federal public service, Mr. Dodge has held senior positions in the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, the Anti-Inflation Board, and the Department of Employment and Immigration. After serving in a number of increasingly senior positions at the Department of Finance, including that of G-7 Deputy, Mr. Dodge was appointed Deputy Minister of Finance in 1992. In that role, he served as a member of the Bank's Board of Directors until 1997.

In 1998, Mr. Dodge was appointed Deputy Minister of Health, where he served until the announcement of his appointment as Governor of the Bank of Canada.


William C. Dudley
Director of U.S. Economic Research
Goldman Sachs & Company

William Dudley is a Partner and Chief U.S. Economist at Goldman Sachs. Dudley has served as director of the U.S. Economic Research Group at Goldman, Sachs & Co. since October 1995, and has been a managing director since 1996. His duties at Goldman include economic and interest rate forecasting for the United States and overseeing the entire Canadian research effort. Before attaining his current position, he bore responsibility for the foreign exchange outlook, analyzed U.S. financial market developments, and for eight years was Robert Rubin's senior economic adviser.

Prior to joining Goldman Sachs in 1986, Dudley was vice president in charge of regulatory management at J.P. Morgan. In addition to his duties at Goldman Sachs, Dudley is a member of the technical consultants board to the Congressional Budget Office, a member of the Brookings Council at The Brookings Institution, serves on the corporate advisory board for the Institute for International Economics, and is co-chair of the economic advisory committee of the Bond Market Association. Mr. Dudley received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1982.


Kristin Forbes
Council of Economic Advisers

Kristin Forbes was confirmed by the Senate as a Member of the President's Council of Economic Advisers in October of 2003. She is the youngest person to ever hold this position. Forbes is on leave from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management, where she is the Mitsubishi Career Development Chair and Associate Professor of International Management. During 2001-2002 Forbes worked in the U.S. Treasury Department as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Quantitative Policy Analysis, Latin American and Caribbean Nations. At the start of 2003 she was honored as one of the “Global Leaders for Tomorrow” as part of the World Economic Forum at Davos.

Forbes' research addresses a number of important policy-related questions in international finance and development economics. Her recent work examines the impact of capital controls on investment decisions, as well as the effect of currency depreciations and financial crises on companies around the globe. Forbes has also written extensively on stock market contagion (such as the paper “No Contagion, Only Interdependence: Measuring Stock Market Comovements,” Journal of Finance, 2002) and recently co-edited a book International Financial Contagion (2001). Forbes' other research explores the relationship between income inequality and economic growth, such as the article "A Reassessment of the Relationship Between Inequality and Growth" (American Economic Review, 2000). Forbes was awarded the Milken Award for Distinguished Economic Research in 2000.

Forbes is currently a faculty research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She was honored as Sloan School of Management's "Teacher of the Year" in 2001. She has recently been a visiting scholar at the U.S. Federal Reserve Board, Indian Council of Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Prior to joining MIT, Forbes worked in the investment banking division at Morgan Stanley, in the policy research department at the World Bank, and in the economics group at Fleet Financial Institutions.

Forbes received her PhD in Economics at MIT in 1998, where she won the Solow Prize for excellence in teaching and research. She obtained her BA, summa cum laude with highest honors from Williams College in 1992.

William Gale
Senior Fellow
Brookings Institution

Bill Gale is a Senior Fellow and holds the Arjay and Frances Miller Chair in Federal Economic Policy in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. He is deputy director of the Economic Studies Program and co-director of the Tax Policy Center, a joint venture of the Brookings Institution and the Urban Institute. His areas of expertise include tax policy, budget and fiscal policy, and public and private saving behavior and pensions.

Before joining Brookings, Gale was an assistant professor in the Department of Economics at the University of California at Los Angeles, and a senior staff economist for the Council of Economic Advisers. He has also served as a consultant to the General Accounting Office and the World Bank.

Gale is co-editor of Private Pensions and Public Policy (2004), Rethinking Estate and Gift Taxation (2001), Economic Effects of Fundamental Tax Reform (1996), and The Evolving Pension System: Trends, Effects, and Proposals for Reform (forthcoming), all published by Brookings. Gale is author or co-author of numerous academic articles including: “An Economic Evaluation of EGTRRA,” National Tax Journal (2002), “Perspectives on the Budget Surplus,” National Tax Journal (2000), “The Adequacy of Retirement Saving,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (1999), "The Effects of Pensions on Household Wealth," Journal of Political Economy, (August 1998), "The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving," Journal of Economic Perspectives (Fall, 1996), "IRAs and Household Saving," American Economic Review (December, 1994), "Intergenerational Transfers and the Accumulation of Wealth," Journal of Economic Perspectives (Fall, 1994), "Economic Effects of Federal Credit Programs," American Economic Review, (March, 1991). He contributes a regular column called “Tax Break,” which appears in Tax Notes magazine, and has published in a wide variety of popular media outlets, including the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post.

Gale has received grants from the National Institute on Aging, the National Science Foundation, Smith-Richardson Foundation, the Social Security Administration, the American Council on Life Insurance, the Lumina Foundation, the John M. Olin Foundation, TIAA-CREF Institute, the Department of Labor, the Institute for Research on Poverty, and the Center for American Politics and Public Policy.

Gale received his B.A. in economics from Duke University and his Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University. He also studied for a year as an undergraduate at the London School of Economics. He lives in Fairfax, VA, with his wife, two children, and two golden retrievers. He is an avid tennis player, runner, and skier.


Thomas D. Gallagher
Senior Managing Director
ISI Group, Inc.

Thomas D. Gallagher is a Senior Managing Director of International Strategy and Investment Group Inc. ISI is broker-dealer specializing in economic and political research for institutional investors. Tom runs ISI’s Washington office, which analyzes the financial market implications of policy actions and political developments. He joined ISI in February 1999. Prior to that he was a managing director at Lehman Brothers, where he worked as a political economist for 13 years.

Tom has been ranked on the Institutional Investor's All-Star Team for Washington research for the last nine years and was rated the #1 Washington analyst in 2001. He is a regular panelist on “Louis Rukeyser’s Wall Street.” He serves on the Community First Bankshares Board of Directors and is on the Editorial Advisory Board of Mental Floss magazine.

Before his Wall Street jobs, Tom worked in the federal government for eight years. He served as a senior staff member at the U.S. International Trade Commission, as a Legislative Assistant to Senator George Mitchell, as an Economist for the Senate Budget Committee, and as an Analyst in Public Finance for the Congressional Research Service.

Tom earned a BS in Economics and Political Science from the University of South Dakota (1976) and a Masters of Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (1978). He is also a Chartered Financial Analyst.


Greg Garcia
Vice President, Information Security Policy and Programs
Information Technology Association of America



Daniel L. Goelzer
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board

Daniel L. Goelzer is a Board Member of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. On October 25, 2002, the Securities and Exchange Commission appointed Mr. Goelzer to a four-year term as one of the Board's charter members.

From 1983 to 1990, Mr. Goelzer served as General Counsel of the SEC. Before his appointment as General Counsel, Mr. Goelzer was Executive Assistant to the Commission's Chairman, and also served in the Commission's Office of the General Counsel. In 1973-74, he was Law Clerk to the Honorable Thomas E. Fairchild, United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. From 1990 until joining the Board, Mr. Goelzer was a partner in the Washington, D.C. office of the law firm of Baker & McKenzie. Mr. Goelzer has also served as an adjunct faculty member at the Georgetown University Law Center.

Mr. Goelzer is also a Certified Public Accountant and a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the Wisconsin Institute of Certified Public Accountants. From 1969 to 1970, he was employed in the Milwaukee, Wis., office of a predecessor to Deloitte & Touche.

Mr. Goelzer received his B.B.A. (Accounting) degree in 1969 from the University of Wisconsin, his J.D. degree in 1973 from the University of Wisconsin School of Law, and his L.L.M. degree in 1979 from the National Law Center, George Washington University.


Nancy M. Gordon
Associate Director for Demographic Programs
Census Bureau

Nancy M. Gordon is the Associate Director for Demographic Programs at the U.S. Census Bureau.

Dr. Gordon provides executive leadership for all of the Census Bureau's demographic divisions with 800 employees and an annual budget of over $200 million dollars. She leads the areas of the Census Bureau that produce the estimates and projections that drive the allocation of $100 billion in federal funds each year and that collects data for many other government agencies.

She is responsible for a comprehensive program of social and economic data analysis, statistical consulting and training, and statistical software development for international sponsors, such as the World Bank, the United Nations, the Agency for International Development, and individual foreign countries.

Dr. Gordon heads the office that provides the research needed to support decisions on statistical standards which are applied to the entire federal statistical system, including the research underlying the definitions of poverty, race and ethnicity, and metropolitan and non-metropolitan status.

She was recently named a Fellow by the American Statistical Association and elected to membership of the International Statistical Institute.

She received her B.A. in Economics and Statistics from the University of California at Berkeley and her Ph.D. in Economics from Stanford.


Michael J. Graetz
Justus S. Hotchkiss Professor of Law
Yale University

Michael J Graetz is the Justus S. Hotchkiss Professor of Law at Yale University. He teaches Taxation; tax policy; health law and policy; income security law and policy.

His books include Federal Income Taxation: Principles and Policies , 4th ed., 2001; The Decline (and Fall?) of the Income Tax , 1997; The U.S. Income Tax , 1999;
True Security - Rethinking American Social Insurance (with J. Mashaw), 1999;Federal Income Taxation: Principles and Policies, Fourth Edition , 2001; andFoundations of International Income Taxation , 2003

He has also been Deputy Assistant Secretary for Tax Policy, U.S. Treasury, 1990-92; and Assistant to the Secretary and Special Counsel, 1992. He has a B.B.A., Emory, 1966, and an LL.B., University of Virginia, 1969.


Rob Grunewald
Regional Economic Analyst
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis

Rob Grunewald conducts regional economic research and co-authors the Minneapolis Fed's “Beige Book” report on current economic conditions. He also writes articles on the regional economy and other economics and banking issues for the fedgazette and The Region , two economics and banking periodicals published by the Minneapolis Fed. Grunewald regularly speaks to business, community and school groups about the Federal Reserve and the regional economy. He co-authored “Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return” (January 2003), an economic policy paper, which has been featured in the media, legislative hearings, and seminars in Minnesota and several other states.

Grunewald is also responsible for economic education projects, including the Economics Challenge, a national quiz-bowl competition for high school students. He sits on the Advisory Board for the Academy of Finance of St. Paul Public Schools.

Grunewald joined the bank in 1993 and holds a bachelor's degree in economics and religion from St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minn.

Donald A. Hanson
Argonne National Laboratory

Dr. Hanson is an economist at Argonne National Laboratory specializing in modeling impacts of energy-intensive technologies and interactions of energy and the economy. Dr. Hanson is also an Adjunct Professor of Economics at DePaul University and has consulted with the Federal Reserve Bank in Chicago and with the Global Business Network. Previously, he taught at Ohio State University and Southern Methodist University and has worked at the Central Bureau of Statistics in Norway. He holds Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. degrees from University of Illinois in Urbana, an M.B.A. degree from University of Chicago, and was an NSF visiting scholar at M.I.T.

Trevor Harris
Managing Director
Morgan Stanley

Trevor Harris is a Managing Director at Morgan Stanley who joined the firm in mid-2000. He heads the global valuation and accounting policy team in Equity Research. Mr. Harris began his work at Morgan Stanley in 1997 as a consultant on global accounting and valuation issues, heading the Apples-to-Apples global equity research project, and has continued to publish widely recognized research on issues of valuation and accounting.

He is a Chartered Accountant (SA) and was a local manager with Arthur Andersen before moving into academia in 1980. He is co-Director of Columbia's newly formed Center for Excellence in Accounting and Security Analysis. He also serves as a member of the Standards Advisory Council to the International Accounting Standards Board, the User Advisory Council of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, and the International Capital Markets Advisory Committee at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).

Prior to joining Morgan Stanley, he assisted Daimler-Benz with their move to US-GAAP and their listing on the NYSE and worked with several companies in evaluating their accounting relative to International Accounting Standards and US-GAAP. He provided consulting services on international accounting, controllership and valuation issues to many large international corporations as well as Salomon Brothers and their clients, Standard & Poors and TIAA/CREF's investment group. He also served as the accounting and economics expert on a team hired to evaluate the pricing and ratemaking structure of the US postal service.

He earned his doctorate from the University of Washington and joined the faculty at Columbia University in 1983. During his time at Columbia Business School he was the Jerome A. Chazen Professor of International Business, Chair of the Accounting Department, and won several teaching awards. He also spent a year as a visiting professor at the University of Chicago.

He has published widely in the academic accounting literature. His research has focused on the value-relevance of accounting information with an additional focus on international issues. His publications include: Conflicts of Interest in the Financial Services Industry: What Should We Do About Them? (CEPR, 2003) with Andrew Crocket, Frederic Mishkin, and Eugene White, "The Share Price Effects of Dividend Taxes and Tax Imputation Credits" with G. Hubbard and D. Kemsley Journal of Public Economics (February 2001), International Accounting Standards versus U.S.-GAAP: Empirical Evidence Based on Case Studies (Southwestern Publishing Company, 1995), and "A Comparison of the Value-Relevance of U.S. Versus Non-U.S.-GAAP Accounting Using Form 20-F Reconciliations" with E. Amir and E. Venuti Journal of Accounting Research (Supplement 1993).


Douglas Holtz-Eakin
Congressional Budget Office

Douglas Holtz-Eakin is the sixth Director of the Congressional Budget Office, where he was appointed for a four-year term beginning February 3, 2003. Dr. Holtz-Eakin previously served for 18 months as Chief Economist for the President's Council of Economic Advisers, where he also served as Senior Staff Economist in 1989 and 1990.

Dr. Holtz-Eakin is Trustee Professor of Economics at the Maxwell School, Syracuse University, where he has served as Chairman of the Department of Economics and Associate Director of the Center for Policy Research. He also has served as editor of the National Tax Journal, associate editor of the Journal of Human Resources, and as a member of the editorial board for Economics and Politics, Journal of Sports Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics, and Public Works Management and Policy.

In the past, he has held academic appointments at Columbia University and Princeton University. Since 1985 he has been a faculty research fellow and research associate for the National Bureau of Economic Research. From 1996 to 1998 he served as a member of the Economics Advisory Panel to the National Science Foundation. He also has worked as a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. He has been a consultant to the New Jersey State and Local Expenditure and Revenue Policy Commission, the State of Arizona Joint Select Committee on State Revenues and Expenditures, and the New York State Office for the Aging. He has served as a member of the Board of Economic Advisers for the Ways and Means Committee, as well as the Executive Director, Tax Study Commission, New York State Assembly.

Dr. Holtz-Eakin has a long-standing and broad interest in the economics of public policy. He has studied the role of federal taxes in home ownership, the contribution of inventories to the business cycle, and a wide variety of topics in state and local government finance. Much of his research has centered on the economics of fundamental tax reform, productivity effects of public infrastructure; income mobility in the United States; and the role of families, capital markets, health insurance, and tax policy in the start-up and survival of entrepreneurial ventures.


Catherine L. Mann
Senior Fellow
Institute for International Economics

Dr. Catherine L. Mann has been a senior fellow at the Institute for International Economics since 1997. Previously, she served as assistant director of the International Finance Division at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors; senior international economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisers at the White House; and adviser to the chief economist at the World Bank.

Her current work focuses on the economic and policy issues of global information, communications, and technology, particularly with reference to the US economy, labor market, and international trade. Her recent Institute policy brief "Globalization of IT Services and White-Collar Jobs: The Next Wave of Productivity Growth" and forthcoming book High-tech and Globalization in America address these issues.

She is author or coauthor of two books that focus on the policy foundations for effective use of technology for domestic development and external competitiveness. The New Economy and APEC (2001) was presented to and endorsed by APEC Leaders at their meeting in Shanghai, China. Global Electronic Commerce: A Policy Primer (2000) uses general analysis and specific examples from field research in more than 10 countries to address how the Internet and electronic commerce affect policymaking, with particular focus on infrastructure and policy issues of taxation, privacy, security, intellectual property, and trade negotiations. In addition she directs a project funded by the Ford Foundation to support collaborative research comparing Asian and Latin American countries on how technology affects entrepreneurship, government, education and skills, and financial intermediation. She has delivered keynote speeches and engaged in projects on technology and policy in China, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Morocco, Tunisia, South Africa, as well as in Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, and New Zealand.

She also studies broader issues of US trade, the sustainability of the current account, and the exchange value of the dollar. Published in 1999, Is the US Trade Deficit Sustainable? answers perennial questions about the impact of global integration on the US economy and the dollar. A Journal of Economic Perspectives (2002) article reviews concepts of sustainability, including the role of international financial markets and international trade in services, topics also addressed in "How Long the Strong Dollar?" in Dollar Overvaluation and the World Economy , edited by John Williamson and C. Fred Bergsten, and in "The US Current Account, New Economy Services, and Implications for Sustainability" in the Review of International Economics.

In addition to her work at the Institute, Dr. Mann taught for 10 years as adjunct professor of management at the Owen School of Management at Vanderbilt University and two years at the Johns Hopkins Nitze School for Advanced International Studies, among other university courses. Dr. Mann received her PhD in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her undergraduate degree is from Harvard University.



Laurence H. Meyer
Former Governor, Federal Reserve System
Vice Chairman, Macroeconomic Advisers

Laurence H. Meyer served as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve from June 20, 1996 until January 31, 2002. He was widely recognized as an influential member of the Federal Open Market Committee and built a reputation for independent thinking and sraight talk about monetary policy.

Dr. Meyer was Chairman of the Boards Committee on Supervisory and Regulatory Affairs, overseeing the Boards regulatory implementation of Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and its participation in negotiations toward a new international capital accord. He also represented the Federal Reserve Board in several international forums, including the Financial Stability Forum, the Economic Policy Committee of the OECD, and APEC. He was responsible for monitoring developments in the Asia Pacific region and participated in U.S. bilateral dialogues with the central banks and finance ministries of Japan, China, and India.

Dr. Meyer is Vice Chairman at Macroeconomic Advisers (MA) and offers Monetary Policy Insights in cooperation with MA. Macroeconomic Advisers was co-founded by Dr. Meyer, Chris Varvares, and Joel Prakken in 1982 as Laurence H. Meyer and Associates and Dr. Meyer served as President and Chairman of LHM&A from 1982 to 1996. The firm was renamed in 1996 when Meyer joined the Federal Reserve Board. Dr. Meyer is also a distinguished scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. He operates out of his office in Washington D.C. In addition to his MPI service, Dr. Meyer is available for speaking engagements.

Dr. Meyer is recognized as one of the nations leading economic forecasters. He was honored by Business Week in 1986 as the top forecaster for the year on its forecast panel. He was similarly honored in 1993 and 1996 with the prestigious Annual Forecast Award, presented to the most accurate forecaster on the panel for the Blue Chip Economic indicators.

Dr. Meyer received a B.A. (magna cum laude) from Yale University in 1965 and a Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. He was also a professor of economics at Washington University in St. Louis from 1969 to 1996 and a former Chairman of the economics department and a Research Associate of the Universitys Center for the Study of American Business.

Dr. Meyer serves on the Board of the National Bureau of Economic Research, is a Senior Advisor to the G-7 Group, and a Fellow of the National Association of Business Economists. He also received the 2002 Butler Award from the New York Association of Business Economists for excellence in business economics and is a member of the Board of Scholars of the American Council for Capital Formation.


Joseph Minarik
Senior Vice President and Director of Research
Committee for Economic Development

Joseph J. Minarik has been perhaps uniquely involved in the major economic policy decisions of the last two decades.

From 1981 to 1986, Dr. Minarik was closely associated with Senator Bill Bradley and Rep. Richard A. Gephardt in their effort to reform the Federal income tax. He was the source of many of the original ideas in their bill, “The Fair Tax Act,” including deficit-neutral reductions of tax rates for businesses as well as individuals, to reduce economic distortions and increase efficiency and productivity. Dr. Minarik published Making Tax Choices (Urban Institute Press, 1985) and many articles on this issue, testified before the Congress on numerous occasions, served on the faculty of the two retreats of the House Ways & Means Committee, and worked informally with policymakers on the evolution of the legislation. His role is described in Timothy J. Conlan, Margaret T. Wrightson and David R. Beam, Taxing Choices (Congressional Quarterly Press, 1990), and Jeffrey H. Birnbaum and Alan S. Murray, Showdown at Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and the Unlikely Triumph of Tax Reform (Random House, 1987).

In 1991 and 1992, Dr. Minarik served as Executive Director for Policy and Chief Economist of the Budget Committee of the House of Representatives, for then-Chairman Leon E. Panetta. He had lead responsibility in the preparation of “Restoring America's Future: “ which was Chairman Panetta's argument for a multi-year program to eliminate the Federal budget deficit. When Chairman Panetta was nominated as Director of the Office of Management and Budget in 1993, Dr. Minarik became OMB's Associate Director for Economic Policy, and worked on the formulation and adoption of President Bill Clinton's 1993 economic program. When the Federal budget became a leading issue in 1995 and 1996, Dr. Minarik worked closely with then-Chief of Staff Panetta and new OMB Director Alice M. Rivlin in the formulation of the Administration's program to eliminate the budget deficit, which evolved into the bipartisan balanced budget agreement of 1997.

Dr. Minarik has extensive experience in both economic research and public service. As an academic researcher, he has investigated topics such as poverty, income security policy, the distribution of income, the consequences of inflation, fiscal policy, and tax policy, with publications on the tax treatment of capital gains, indexation, and income tax design.

Before his work at the House Budget Committee, Dr. Minarik served as the Executive Director of the Joint Economic Committee of the Congress, was a Senior Research Associate at the Urban Institute, served as Deputy Assistant Director of the Tax Analysis Division of the Congressional Budget Office, and was a Research Associate in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. While at CBO, he served on assignment as tax economist for the Senate Budget Committee for Senator Pete Domenici. In 1986, Dr. Minarik was named one of the "150 Who Make a Difference" — persons not in the Federal government who most affect what the government does — by the magazine National Journal .

Dr. Minarik received three graduate degrees in economics from Yale University, with his Ph.D. in 1974. He received his B.A. in economics from Georgetown University in 1971.

Michael Mussa
Senior Fellow
Institute for International Economics

Senior Fellow, served as Economic Counselor and Director of the Department of Research at the International Monetary Fund from 1991-2001, where he was responsible for advising the Management of the Fund and the Fund's Executive Board on broad issues of economic policy and for providing analysis of ongoing developments in the world economy. By appointment of President Ronald Reagan, Dr. Mussa served as a Member of the US Council of Economic Advisers from August 1986 to September 1988. He was a member of the faculty of the Graduate School of Business of the University of Chicago (1976-91) and was on the faculty of the Department of Economics at the University of Rochester (1971-76). During this period he also served as a visiting faculty member at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, the London School of Economics, and the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Dr. Mussa's main areas of research are international economics, macroeconomics, monetary economics, and municipal finance. He has published widely in these fields in professional journals and research volumes.


Allison Nathan
Vice President
Goldman Sachs & Company

Allison F. Nathan, Vice-President, holds the position of Senior Energy Economist in the Global Investment Research Division of Goldman, Sachs & Co., where she conducts research on the global commodities market. Her current research is aimed at understanding commodity market dynamics in the context of corporate risk management programs and short- and long-term commodity investment strategies. Mrs. Nathan joined Goldman, Sachs & Co. in 1998 after earning her masters in international economics and Latin American studies from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in Washington DC. She graduated from Duke University in 1995.

Joseph P. Newhouse
John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management
Harvard University

Joseph P. Newhouse is the John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management, is head of the Interfaculty Initiative on Health Policy and directs the Division of Health Policy Research and Education, which administers the PhD program in Health Policy at Harvard. He edits the Journal of Health Economics , is a member of the editorial board of The New England Journal of Medicine , andhas been a member and vice-chair of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Newhouse was the first recipient of the David Kershaw Prize of the Association of Public Policy and Management and has received the Distinguished Investigator Award of the Association for Health Services Research, The Kenneth J. Arrow award, The Zvi Griliches award, and The Paul A. Samuelson Certificate of Excellence for various of his writings. In his nonexistent spare time, he likes to play bridge.


Jim O'Neill
Head of Global Economic Research
Goldman Sachs & Company



Peter Orszag
Senior Fellow
Brookings Institution

Peter R. Orszag is the Joseph A. Pechman Senior Fellow in Economic Studies at The Brookings Institution; Co-Director of the Tax Policy Center, a joint venture of the Urban Institute and Brookings Institution; Director of the Retirement Security Project; and Research Professor at Georgetown University. He previously served as Special Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and as Senior Economist and Senior Adviser on the Council of Economic Advisers, during the Clinton Administration. His current areas of research include pensions, budget and tax policy, Social Security, higher education, and homeland security.

Dr. Orszag graduated summa cum laude in economics from Princeton University, and obtained a M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in economics from the London School of Economics, which he attended as a Marshall Scholar. He is the co-editor of American Economic Policy in the 1990s (MIT Press: 2002), co-author of Protecting the American Homeland: A Preliminary Analysis (Brookings Institution Press: 2002), and co-author of Saving Social Security: A Balanced Approach (Brookings Institution Press: 2004). His other recent publications include: “Private Pensions: Issues and Options” (with William G. Gale), in H. Aaron et. al., editors, Agenda for the Nation (Brookings: 2003); “Budget Blues: The Fiscal Outlook and Options for Reform,” (with Alan J. Auerbach, William G. Gale, and Samara R. Potter), in H. Aaron et. al., eds., Agenda for the Nation (Brookings: 2003); “State Fiscal Constraints and Higher Education Spending,” (with Thomas Kane and David Gunter), Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center Discussion Paper No. 12, May 2003; “Reassessing the Fiscal Gap: The Role of Tax-Deferred Saving,” (with Alan J. Auerbach and William G. Gale), Tax Notes, July 28, 2003; “Economic Effects of Sustained Budget Deficits,” (with William G. Gale), National Tax Journal, September 2003; “The State Fiscal Crisis: Why It Happened and What to Do About It,” The Milken Institute Review, Third Quarter 2003; “Fiscal Follies: The Real Budget Problem and How to Fix It,” (with William G. Gale), Brookings Review, Fall 2003; “Sustained Budget Deficits: Longer-Run U.S. Economic Performance and the Risk of Financial and Fiscal Disarray,” (with Robert E. Rubin and Allen Sinai), paper presented at the Allied Social Sciences Associations Annual Meetings, The Andrew Brimmer Policy Forum, January 2004; “The Budget Outlook: Updates And Implications” (with William G. Gale), Tax Notes, February 2004; “The President’s FY 2005 Budget: First Impressions,” (with William G. Gale), Tax Notes, February 2004; and “Should the President’s Tax Cuts Be Made Permanent?” (with William G. Gale), Tax Notes, March 2004.

Dr. Orszag has testified on numerous occasions before Congress and is a regular commentator on economic policy in the national press.


Charles R. Plott
Professor of Economics and Political Science
California Institute of Technology

Professor Plott's early work was on the theoretical aspects of social choice theory, voting and public economics. At the beginning of the 1970s he became interested in developing and applying laboratory methodologies. He has conducted extensive research on the behavioral foundations of economics and political science.

In the general area of public economics he created a methodology for applying laboratory methods to the study of non-market processes. The early applications include the discovery of the equilibration tendencies of committees, the power of the agenda, the importance of many different voting rules and procedural institutional features in dictating the outcomes of group deliberations. He was the first to identify the equilibration of markets with externalities and circumstances in which the classical “free riding” phenomena can be observed in the context of public goods provision. In market economics his work with Vernon Smith led to the discovery of the “posted price effect” and to the measurement of efficiency in experimental markets, both of which are central to the foundations of policy related experimental work on market institutions. The research in economics has opened new issues to laboratory investigation. His work was the first to explore the detailed influences of market microstructure on the price formation process. In complex system of markets he was the first to study the principles that govern information aggregation in markets, market stability, and the operations of multiple markets -- including general equilibrium, international trade, international finance, and how multiple financial markets respond to risk.

Much of his research has been devoted to the development and application of laboratory methods to policy issues in which existing institutions as well as potential new institutions were studied.

The Caltech Laboratory for Experimental Economics and Political Science, which he founded and directs, has been a major producer of laboratory technologies. These began with local area networked tools used in laboratories throughout the world and now to the development of internet technology for conducting large, worldwide experiments. Already experiments that use people from around the world participating in a single market have been successfully conducted.


Andre Plourde
Professor and Chair, Economics Department
University of Alberta

André Plourde is Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, University of Alberta. He received his B.A. and M.A. in Economics from the University of New Brunswick, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of British Columbia.

After serving as assistant professor and research associate at the University of Toronto from 1983 to 1987, he joined the Department of Economics at the University of Ottawa. In 1997, André undertook a one-year assignment as Director of Economic Studies and Policy Analysis with the federal Department of Finance. He joined the University of Alberta in 1998, where he helped launch the Natural Resources and Energy specialization within the School of Business's MBA program. During academic year 2003-2004, André took a one-year leave from academic life and was appointed Associate Assistant Deputy Minister for the Energy sector at Natural Resources Canada.

André has served on numerous advisory committees and was recently re-elected Vice President and Treasurer of the International Association for Energy Economics. His research interests have centered mainly on energy economics and on Canadian energy and environmental policy issues.

Kenneth E. Poole
Executive Director

Kenneth E. Poole In January 2000, Kenneth E. Poole formed an independent non-profit affiliated with George Mason University and ACCRA that is focused on developing a stronger understanding of how regional economies can compete effectively in the knowledge-based economy. As part of those efforts, Dr. Poole directs a national nonprofit membership organization (ACCRA) serving economic and community development researchers in communities, states, academia, and the private sector. In his capacity of Executive Director, Dr. Poole oversees all program development activities of the organization including the production of the organization's newsletter, annual conference, web site, and publications.

As CEO of the Center for Regional Economic Competitiveness, Dr. Poole is undertaking organizational development, strategic planning, network building, and technical assistance efforts to foster knowledge-based economic development. Recent projects have involved managing a multi-county regional analysis and strategy process for 12 counties in western North Carolina, implementing a county-wide strategic plan for Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, assisting in facilitating a regional economic strategy for a multi-county region in western Virginia, and developing an operating plan for a two-county development organization on Long Island and Brooklyn. Dr. Poole is also working with the National Association of State Development Agencies (NASDA) and the State Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) to develop a stronger relationship between federal and state partners in the NIST Manufacturing Extension Partnership program.

Dr. Poole has managed economic development research, analysis, and technical assistance efforts for 21 years. Before joining ACCRA, he served as the Director of Domestic Economic Development for NASDA, where he provided technical assistance and research support to state and local economic development professionals.


Harvey Rosen
Council of Economic Advisers

Harvey S. Rosen was designated by the President to be Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers on February 23, 2005. Dr. Rosen was nominated by President Bush on July 15, 2003 and confirmed by the United States Senate on October 17, 2003 to serve as a Member of the Council of Economic Advisers. Dr. Rosen is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the John L. Weinberg Professor of Economics and Business Policy. Dr. Rosen has been a member of Princeton's Department of Economics since 1974. He served as Chairman of the Department from 1993 to 1996, and has been Co-Director of the Center for Economic Policy Studies since 1993. In 1986, he was elected a Fellow of the Econometric Society.

Dr. Rosen has been involved in both the graduate and undergraduate teaching programs at Princeton. In recent years, he has taught undergraduate courses in public finance, taxation, and introductory microeconomics, and graduate courses in public finance. From 1989 to 1991, Dr. Rosen's audience changed from Princeton students to federal government policy makers, where he served in the U.S. Treasury as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Tax Analysis.

Dr. Rosen's main field of research is public finance. He has published several dozen articles in scholarly journals on this topic, and authored an undergraduate textbook on it as well. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals dealing with public finance and taxation.

Dr. Rosen was born in Chicago in 1949. He was an undergraduate at the University of Michigan, and received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1974.

John W. Ruser
Associate Director for Regional Programs
Bureau of Economic Analysis

John Ruser is Associate Director for Regional Economics at the Bureau of Economic Analysis. He heads the Regional Economics Directorate, responsible for all sub-national economic statistics produced by BEA, including state and local personal income and its components; gross state product; and regional economic impact multipliers.

From March 1995 until November 2002, Dr. Ruser served as Chief of the Compensation Research and Program Development Group at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS); and from 1984 to 1995, he was a senior research economist in the BLS Office of Economic Research. Dr. Ruser holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago and a B.A. in economics from Princeton University.

Richard L. Sandor
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Chicago Climate Exchange

Richard L. Sandor is chairman and CEO of the Chicago Climate Exchange, a self-regulatory exchange that administers the world's first multi-national and multi-sector marketplace for reducing and trading greenhouse gas emissions . Dr. Sandor is also a research professor at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University. While on sabbatical from the University of California, Berkeley in the early 1970s he served as Vice President and chief economist of the Chicago Board of Trade. It was at that time that he earned the reputation as the principal architect of the interest-rate futures market. Richard L. Sandor was honored by the City of Chicago and the Chicago Board of Trade for his contribution to the creation of financial futures and his universal recognition as the "father of financial futures".

Dr. Sandor held a variety of senior executive positions in the financial services industry at Drexel Burham Lambert, Kidder Peabody and Banque Indosuez. He has served on numerous committees and boards including the Chicago Board of Trade, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE) and the International Advisory Board of the Marché à Terme International de France (MATIF). Dr. Sandor also serves as a board member of American Electric Power, Millennium Cell, IntercontinentalExchange, Sustainable Performance Group and of Bear Stearns Financial Products Inc. and its subsidiary Bear Stearns Trading Risk Management Inc.

In August 2002 Dr. Sandor was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Heroes for the Planet" for his work as the founder of the Chicago Climate Exchange. In November 2004, Dr. Sandor was the recipient of an honorary degree of Doctor of Science, honoris causa , by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) of Zurich, Switzerland for his pioneer work in the design and implementation of innovative and flexible market-based mechanisms to address environmental concerns. Dr. Sandor was born on September 7, 1941 and received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the City University of New York, Brooklyn College, and holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Minnesota.

Robert G. Shackleton
Principal Analyst
Congressional Budget Office



Gene B. Sperling
Senior Fellow
Center for American Progress

Gene B. Sperling is a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress. He served in the Clinton administration as the President's National Economic Adviser and Director of the National Economic Council. Mr. Sperling was the third person to hold the role of chief economic adviser in the White House, following Robert Rubin and Laura Tyson.

Mr. Sperling, who served as either National Economic Adviser or as Deputy NEC Director for all eight years, was called by Mr. Clinton “the MVP” of the economic team. As Director of the NEC, Mr. Sperling was responsible for coordinating domestic and international economic cabinet members. Mr. Sperling coordinated the President's Social Security and debt reduction efforts, and played a key role in such initiatives as the 1993 Deficit Reduction Act, the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit and technology literacy initiative.

Mr. Sperling also works on a variety of economic and international issues in several capacities: he is Senior Fellow for Economic Policy and Director of the Center on Universal Education at the Council of Foreign Relations; a weekly Economic Columnist for Bloomberg News; a frequent commentator on CNBC, Bloomberg Television, CNN, and Evening News on federal reserve policy, consumer confidence, and tax and budget issues; and is a contributing writer and consultant on NBC television drama, The West Wing.

Susan Sterne
Economic Analysis Associates, Inc.

Mrs. Sterne's thirty year Wall Street career has been devoted to understanding, forecasting and interpreting the consumer sector of the economy. Before founding Economic Analysis Associates in 1979 she was with various Wall Street houses including Goldman, Sachs, Cyrus J. Lawrence and Salomon Brothers where she was vice president in charge of all consumer research. Mrs. Sterne began publishing the monthly Consumer Monitor in 1975 while working as an economist in the research department of Faulkner, Dawkins & Sullivan. She has served as an advisor to the U.S. Department of Commerce and is a member of a number of professional organizations including The Conference of Business Economists, the National Association for Business Economics, the NYSSA and AIMR.


Michael Tanner
Director of Health and Welfare Studies
The Cato Institute

Michael Tanner directs research on new, market-based approaches to health, welfare and other "entitlements." His approach is based on individual responsibility rather than government control. Under Tanner's direction, Cato launched the Project on Social Security Choice-widely considered the leading impetus for transforming the soon-to-be-bankrupt system into a private savings program. He challenges the conventional wisdom that welfare can be reformed, arguing instead for the end of a welfare system that has bred dependence and despair while creating a permanent American underclass. Tanner's writing has been published in the Washington Post , Los Angeles Times , Wall Street Journal , and USA Today . He has appeared on ABC, CBS, NBC, National Public Radio, PBS, Fox News Channel, MSNBC, CNBC and Voice of America. A prolific author and frequent guest lecturer, Tanner served as director of research of the Georgia Public Policy Foundation before joining Cato in 1993.


Ross Thompson
Professor of Psychology
University of California, Davis

Ross Thompson is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. His research interests are in two fields. As a developmental psychologist, he studies early parent-child relationships, the development of emotional understanding and emotion regulation, conscience development, and the growth of self-understanding. As a psycholegal scholar, he works on the applications of developmental research to public policy concerns, including the effects of divorce and custody arrangements on children, child maltreatment prevention, school readiness, research ethics, and early brain development and early intervention. Thompson is a founding member of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, and was a member of the Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development of the National Academy of Sciences that produced the report, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development (National Academy Press, 2000). He has twice been Associate Editor of Child Development, and is Consulting Editor for a series of topical texts in developmental psychology published by McGraw-Hill. His books include Preventing Child Maltreatment through Social Support: A Critical Analysis  (Sage, 1995),(edited with Paul Amato) The Postdivorce Family: Children, Families, and Society (Sage, 1999), and Toward a Child-Centered, Neighborhood-Based Child Protection System (edited with Gary Melton and Mark Small; Praeger, 2002). He also edited Socioemotional Development, based on the 1988 Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (University of Nebraska Press, 1990), and is coauthor of Infant-Mother Attachment (Erlbaum, 1985). He is currently working on Early Brain Development, the Media, and Public Policy (University of Nebraska Press) and Emotional Development (McGraw-Hill). He received his A.B. from Occidental College in 1976, his A.M. from the University of Michigan in 1979, and the Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. Thompson has been a Visiting Scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education in Berlin, a Senior NIMH Fellow in Law and Psychology at Stanford University, and a Harris Visiting Professor at the University of Chicago. He has received the Boyd McCandless Young Scientist Award for Early Distinguished Achievement from the American Psychological Association, the Scholarship in Teaching Award and the Outstanding Research and Creative Activity Award from the University of Nebraska, where he was also a lifetime member of the Academy of Distinguished Teachers.

Grace-Marie Turner
President, Galen Institute
Center for Consumer Driven Health Care

The Galen Institute is focused on two of the most important issues on the public policy agenda today - health and tax policy. Grace-Marie Turner has unique experience in both fields, having worked as facilitator of the Health Policy Consensus Group and as executive director of the National Commission on Economic Growth and Tax Reform. She has spent her career in policy analysis and communications, focusing on health and tax issues for more than 20 years and writes extensively on health policy issues, focusing on incentives to promote a better functioning private marketplace for health insurance. 

Grace-Marie Turner is president of the Galen Institute, a public policy research organization that she founded in 1995 to promote an informed debate over free-market ideas for health reform. She speaks and writes extensively about incentives to promote a more competitive, consumer-driven marketplace in the health sector.

The Galen Institute has been instrumental in promoting Health Savings Accounts and other consumer-friendly ideas that transfer power over health care decisions from bureaucracies to individuals.

In December of 2004, Grace-Marie was invited by President Bush to speak on HSAs and consumer-directed health reform at the White House Economic Summit. She recently was appointed by former HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson to serve as a member of the National Advisory Council of Healthcare Research and Quality.

Grace-Marie also is founder and facilitator of the Health Policy Consensus Group, which serves as a forum for analysts from market-oriented think tanks around the country to analyze and develop health policy recommendations.

She is the editor of Empowering Health Care Consumers through Tax Reform, published by the University of Michigan Press.

In 1995-96, Grace-Marie served as executive director of the National Commission on Economic Growth and Tax Reform. For 12 years, she was president of Arnett & Co., a health policy analysis and communications firm in Washington, D.C.

Her early career was in politics and journalism, where she received numerous awards for her writings on economics and politics.


Regina K. Vargo
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative

Regina K. Vargo is a veteran trade policy expert with extensive experience in the Western Hemisphere region. She joined USTR in June 2001 after spending nearly 30 years with the Commerce Department, serving in a number of high-level positions specializing in trade with countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Mrs. Vargo manages USTR's efforts to liberalize and integrate trade in the Americas. She provides direction to the ongoing negotiations in the Free Trade Area of the Americas, and was the U.S. Chief Negotiator for the recently concluded CAFTA talks with the five countries of Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) as well as the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement, which was implemented in January 2004. Ms. Vargo is currently leading negotiations to integrate the Dominican Republic into the CAFTA, and will begin negotiations in the second quarter of 2005 with Panama and countries in the Andean region. She is also responsible for overseeing implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Ms. Vargo worked on several of these initiatives as the Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Western Hemisphere while at the Department of Commerce. Prior to that, she directed Commerce's support for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and played a key role in promoting the agreement. During her service at the Commerce Department, she twice earned the agency's highest award - the Gold Medal - for work on the NAFTA negotiations and an "Export Mexico" program.

Mrs. Vargo is dedicated to the ongoing work at USTR of opening markets and promoting the benefits for trade for all participating countries. "Through trade, we are promoting democracy and prosperity," she says.

A graduate of Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service, Mrs. Vargo is married with two children.


Andrés Velasco
Economist, LatinSource
Professor of International Finance and Development
Harvard University

Andrés Velasco serves as LatinSource's economist in Chile. He is also Sumitomo-FASID Professor of International Finance and Development at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government.

From 1990-1992, Dr. Velasco held the positions of Chief of Staff to Chile's Finance Minister and of Director of International Finance at that Ministry. In 1995, he was appointed Chief Economist and Deputy Lead Negotiator in Chile's NAFTA accession team. He has been an advisor to the governments of Ecuador and El Salvador and to the Central Bank of Chile. Dr Velasco was also a consultant to the World Bank , the International Monetary Fund , the Inter-American Development Bank, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America , and the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta .

Dr. Velasco has published widely in the areas of international, political and developmental economics. His recent research examines the causes of financial crises in emerging markets and identifies policies that can avert such crises. He is affiliated with the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge and the Center for Applied Economics at the University of Chile . In 1995, TIME Magazine chose Dr. Velasco as one of “The One Hundred Leaders for the Next Millennium”.

Dr. Velasco holds a PhD in Economics from Columbia University and M.A. and B.A. degrees from Yale University . From 1994-1995, he was a Post-Doctoral Fellow in Political Economics at Harvard and M.I.T. Before joining the Kennedy School in 2000, he taught economics and directed the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at New York University .


Benjamin Wu
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Technology Policy
US Department of Commerce

Ben Wu was nominated by President George W. Bush on April 8, 2004 to be the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Technology Policy and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on November 21, 2004. He was previously appointed by President Bush as the Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology and was sworn-in to that position on November 6, 2001.

As the Assistant Secretary for Technology Policy, Ben advocates on behalf of technology promotion and U.S. competitiveness, contributing to the advancement of the President's high-technology agenda. He works with Commerce Secretary Carlos Gutierrez, and previously in the first term of the Bush Administration with Secretary Don Evans, to support entrepreneurship and innovation, improve technology transfer, strengthen technology collaboration, enhance research and development in our nation's federal laboratory systems, and create greater partnerships between government, industry, and universities.

Ben has also led Administration and Commerce initiatives to eliminate barriers to technology trade, open technology access for the disabled, endorse industry-led standards development internationally, and remove impediments to technology commercialization. He participates in activities with the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), a Cabinet-level council established by the President to coordinate science, space, and technology policy within the Federal research and development enterprise, and was the Executive Secretary for the NSTC Committee on Technology.

As the Deputy Under Secretary for Technology, Ben supervised policy development, direction, and management at the Technology Administration, a bureau of over 3,000 employees that includes the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the nation's oldest federal laboratory. The Technology Administration serves as the principal resource to support the Commerce Secretary in developing policies to maximize science and technology's contribution to America's economic growth. Ben has worked with the Technology Administration, first in Congress and now in the Administration, since its inception in 1989.

Prior to his presidential appointment, Ben held senior staff positions in the U.S. Congress for 13 years, as both Counsel to Congresswoman Constance A. Morella of Maryland and on the House Science Committee, first serving on the Investigations and Oversight Subcommittee in 1993-1994 and then on the Technology Subcommittee from 1995-2001. In Congress, Ben focused on information technology, biomedical technology, and technology transfer policy. He was the primary congressional staff on legislation affecting federal intellectual property and federal technology transfer. Ben was also the most senior member and the lead Committee staff of the House Y2K Task Force that directed congressional efforts to correct the Year 2000 computer problem.

Ben received a Bachelor of Arts from New York University in 1985 and a Juris Doctor from the University of Pittsburgh in 1988.


Paul Zorn
Director of Governmental Research
Gabriel, Roeder, Smith & Company

Paul Zorn is Director of Governmental Research at Gabriel, Roeder, Smith & Company and is located in the firm's Southfield, Michigan office. He specializes in research related to public retirement systems and employee benefit plans, and acts as the GRS resource person on federal and state laws, accounting standards, Social Security, and the benefit-related policies of the national public-sector organizations.

In his 22 years of consulting experience, Mr. Zorn has conducted numerous studies of employee benefits, including surveys related to plan administration, benefit provision, actuarial valuations, funding, and investments. He played a key role in designing the Public Pension Coordinating Council's Survey of State and Local Government Employee Retirement Systems and carried out the research for over a decade. Recently, he has focused on retiree health care and has written research reports offering case studies on how retiree health care is provided through state retirement systems and on the funding vehicles used. He also served on the Governmental Accounting Standards Board's Task Force on Other Postemployment Benefits (OPEB), a project to establish accounting standards for retiree health benefits.

Mr. Zorn's research has been used by plan administrators, legislative analysts, actuaries, and other benefit professionals, and has been quoted in the national press. He has spoken on benefit issues to a wide range of groups including: the AARP's National Retired Teachers Association, the Government Finance Officers Association, the Wharton School's Pension Research Council, the National Association of State Retirement Administrators, the National Council on Teacher Retirement, the National Conference on Public Employee Retirement Systems, and the National Education Association.

He has a BA in English from the University of Michigan, and an MA in Public Policy Studies from the University of Chicago.